Canada Rental Management Company Asks New Tenants To Show Evidence Of C-19 Vaccine!

One apartment management company with 1,500 apartments in Edmonton and Calgary is the first one to mandate new tenants show vaccination proof.
Strategic Group issued an announcement at the end of October. Existing tenants will have to give evidence of the shot to access common areas. Luckily, the tenants won’t be kicked out of their homes if they haven’t been vaccinated.

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“We’re proud of it,” chief operating officer Tracey Steman said. “Very proud of it. And we’d like to see other landlords implement the same policy. It will help to end this pandemic.”

“We’ve had really good feedback from our tenants,” Steman said. “We just heard from one who said, and I’ll quote it, ‘As someone who’s lost family members to COVID in the last year, it’s refreshing to see a company invest in the well-being of the community.”‘
John Dicke, the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations president, represents the Canadian rental housing industry.

“This is the first I’ve heard of that,” Dickie said. “Rental housing providers realize people need housing. We’re not in the habit of inquiring into people’s political views.”
When he was asked if he thinks other rental companies would follow this example, he answered, “It’s possible.
Some people are reluctant to be the first adopter. But I don’t think it would be very widespread. We’re not the health police.”
“We want to stress the importance for other landlords to do the same and to help to end this pandemic,” Steman said.

Globalist Organization Attempts to End Free Speech Worldwide

STORY AT-A-GLANCE The International Grand Committee on Disinformation (IGCD) consists of “an international array of legislators, policy advisers, and other experts” who work together “to forge international alliances that bring shared, effective strategies into the battle against online disinformation” The founders of the IGCD are four members of the British and Canadian Parliaments, including British […]
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HonestReporting Ahead of Curve: UK Government Designates Entirety of Hamas A Terror Group

United Kingdom Home Secretary Priti Patel this weekend announced that she had “acted to proscribe Hamas in its entirety.” While London in 2001 blacklisted the Palestinian group’s military wing — the Izz ad-Deen al-Qassam Brigades — it had refrained from banning Hamas’ “political wing,” thereby enabling the Gaza Strip’s rulers to continue raising funds and […]

Virus Lockdowns Will Become Climate Lockdowns

Published on November 19, 2021Written by Colin Todhunter

THe UK government’s Behavioural Insights Team helped to push the public towards accepting the COVID narrative, restrictions and lockdowns. It is now working on ‘nudging’ people towards further possible restrictions or at least big changes in their behaviour in the name of the ‘climate emergency’.

From frequent news stories and advertisements to soap opera storylines and government announcements, the message about impending climate catastrophe is relentless.
Part of the messaging includes blaming the public’s consumption habits for a perceived ‘climate emergency’. At the same time, young people are being told that we only have a decade or so (depending on who is saying it) to ‘save the planet’.
Setting the agenda are powerful corporations that helped degrade much of the environment in the first place. But ordinary people, not the multi-billionaires pushing this agenda, will pay the price for this as living more frugally seems to be part of the programme (‘own nothing and be happy’). Could we at some future point see ‘climate emergency’ lockdowns, not to ‘save the NHS’ but to ‘save the planet’?
A tendency to focus on individual behaviour and not ‘the system’ exists.
But let us not forget this is a system that deliberately sought to eradicate a culture of self-reliance that prevailed among the working class in the 19th century (self-education, recycling products, a culture of thrift, etc) via advertising and a formal school education that ensured conformity and set in motion a lifetime of wage labour and dependency on the products manufactured by an environmentally destructive capitalism.
A system that has its roots in inflicting massive violence across the globe to exert control over land and resources elsewhere.
In his 2018 book The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequalities and its solutions, Jason Hickel describes the processes involved in Europe’s wealth accumulation over a 150-year period of colonialism that resulted in tens of millions of deaths.
By using other countries’ land, Britain effectively doubled the size of arable land in its control. This made it more practical to then reassign the rural population at home (by stripping people of their means of production) to industrial labour. This too was underpinned by massive violence (burning villages, destroying houses, razing crops).
Hickel argues that none of this was inevitable but was rooted in the fear of being left behind by other countries because of Europe’s relative lack of land resources to produce commodities.
This is worth bearing in mind as we currently witness a fundamental shift in our relationship to the state resulting from authoritarian COVID-related policies and the rapidly emerging corporate-led green agenda. We should never underestimate the ruthlessness involved in the quest for preserving wealth and power and the propensity for wrecking lives and nature to achieve this.
Commodification of nature
Current green agenda ‘solutions’ are based on a notion of ‘stakeholder’ capitalism or private-public partnerships whereby vested interests are accorded greater weight, with governments and public money merely facilitating the priorities of private capital.
A key component of this strategy involves the ‘financialisation of nature’ and the production of new ‘green’ markets to deal with capitalism’s crisis of over accumulation and weak consumer demand caused by decades of neoliberal policies and the declining purchasing power of working people. The banking sector is especially set to make a killing via ‘green profiling’ and ‘green bonds’.
According to Friends of the Earth (FoE), corporations and states will use the financialisation of nature discourse to weaken laws and regulations designed to protect the environment with the aim of facilitating the goals of extractive industries, while allowing mega-infrastructure projects in protected areas and other contested places.
Global corporations will be able to ‘offset’ (greenwash) their activities by, for example, protecting or planting a forest elsewhere (on indigenous people’s land) or perhaps even investing in (imposing) industrial agriculture which grows herbicide-resistant GMO commodity crop monocultures that are misleadingly portrayed as ‘climate friendly’.
FoE states:
Offsetting schemes allow companies to exceed legally defined limits of destruction at a particular location, or destroy protected habitat, on the promise of compensation elsewhere; and allow banks to finance such destruction on the same premise.”
This agenda could result in the weakening of current environmental protection legislation or its eradication in some regions under the pretext of compensating for the effects elsewhere.
How ecoservice ‘assets’ (for example, a forest that performs a service to the ecosystem by acting as a carbon sink) are to be evaluated in a monetary sense is very likely to be done on terms that are highly favourable to the corporations involved, meaning that environmental protection will play second fiddle to corporate and finance sector return-on-investment interests.
As FoE argues, business wants this system to be implemented on its terms, which means the bottom line will be more important than stringent rules that prohibit environmental destruction.
Saving capitalism
The envisaged commodification of nature will ensure massive profit-seeking opportunities through the opening up of new markets and the creation of fresh investment instruments.
Capitalism needs to keep expanding into or creating new markets to ensure the accumulation of capital to offset the tendency for the general rate of profit to fall (according to writer Ted Reese, it has trended downwards from an estimated 43 percent in the 1870s to 17 percent in the 2000s). The system suffers from a rising overaccumulation (surplus) of capital.
Reese notes that, although wages and corporate taxes have been slashed, the exploitability of labour continued to become increasingly insufficient to meet the demands of capital accumulation. By late 2019, the world economy was suffocating under a mountain of debt.
Many companies could not generate enough profit and falling turnover, squeezed margins, limited cashflows and highly leveraged balance sheets were prevalent. In effect, economic growth was already grinding to a halt prior to the massive stock market crash in February 2020.
In the form of COVID ‘relief’, there has been a multi-trillion bailout for capitalism as well as the driving of smaller enterprises to bankruptcy. Or they have being swallowed up by global interests. Either way, the likes of Amazon and other predatory global corporations have been the winners.
New ‘green’ Ponzi trading schemes to offset carbon emissions and commodify ‘ecoservices’ along with electric vehicles and an ‘energy transition’ represent a further restructuring of the capitalist economy, resulting in a shift away from a consumer-oriented demand-led system.
It essentially leaves those responsible for environmental degradation at the wheel, imposing their will and their narrative on the rest of us.
Global agribusiness
Between 2000 and 2009, Indonesia supplied more than half of the global palm oil market at an annual expense of some 340,000 hectares of Indonesian countryside. Consider too that Brazil and Indonesia have spent over 100 times more in subsidies to industries that cause deforestation than they received in international conservation aid from the UN to prevent it.
These two countries gave over $40bn in subsidies to the palm oil, timber, soy, beef and biofuels sectors between 2009 and 2012, some 126 times more than the $346m they received to preserve their rain forests.
India is the world’s leading importer of palm oil, accounting for around 15 percent of the global supply. It imports over two-­thirds of its palm oil from Indonesia.
Until the mid-1990s, India was virtually self-sufficient in edible oils. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO), import tariffs were reduced, leading to an influx of cheap (subsidised) edible oil imports that domestic farmers could not compete with.
This was a deliberate policy that effectively devastated the home-grown edible oils sector and served the interests of palm oil growers and US grain and agriculture commodity company Cargill, which helped write international trade rules to secure access to the Indian market on its terms.
Indonesia leads the world in global palm oil production, but palm oil plantations have too often replaced tropical forests, leading to the killing of endangered species and the uprooting of local communities as well as contributing to the release of potential environment-damaging gases. Indonesia emits more of these gases than any country besides China and the US, largely due to the production of palm oil.
The issue of palm oil is one example from the many that could be provided to highlight how the drive to facilitate corporate need and profit trumps any notion of environmental protection or addressing any ‘climate emergency’. Whether it is in Indonesia, Latin America or elsewhere, transnational agribusiness – and the system of globalised industrial commodity crop agriculture it promotes – fuels much of the destruction we see today.
Even if the mass production of lab-created food, under the guise of ‘saving the planet’ and ‘sustainability’, becomes logistically possible (which despite all the hype is not at this stage), it may still need biomass and huge amounts of energy. Whose land will be used to grow these biomass commodities and which food crops will they replace? And will it involve that now-famous Gates’ euphemism ‘land mobility’ (farmers losing their land)?
Microsoft is already mapping Indian farmers’ lands and capturing agriculture datasets such as crop yields, weather data, farmers’ personal details, profile of land held (cadastral maps, farm size, land titles, local climatic and geographical conditions), production details (crops grown, production history, input history, quality of output, machinery in possession) and financial details (input costs, average return, credit history).
Is this an example of stakeholder-partnership capitalism, whereby a government facilitates the gathering of such information by a private player which can then use the data for developing a land market (courtesy of land law changes that the government enacts) for institutional investors at the expense of smallholder farmers who find themselves ‘land mobile’?
This is a major concern among farmers and civil society in India.
Back in 2017, agribusiness giant Monsanto was judged to have engaged in practices that impinged on the basic human right to a healthy environment, the right to food and the right to health. Judges at the ‘Monsanto Tribunal’, held in The Hague, concluded that if ecocide were to be formally recognised as a crime in international criminal law, Monsanto could be found guilty.
The tribunal called for the need to assert the primacy of international human and environmental rights law. However, it was also careful to note that an existing set of legal rules serves to protect investors’ rights in the framework of the WTO and in bilateral investment treaties and in clauses in free trade agreements. These investor trade rights provisions undermine the capacity of nations to maintain policies, laws and practices protecting human rights and the environment and represent a disturbing shift in power.
The tribunal denounced the severe disparity between the rights of multinational corporations and their obligations.
While the Monsanto Tribunal judged that company to be guilty of human rights violations, including crimes against the environment, in a sense we also witnessed global capitalism on trial.
Global conglomerates can only operate as they do because of a framework designed to allow them to capture or co-opt governments and regulatory bodies and to use the WTO and bilateral trade deals to lever influence.
As Jason Hickel notes in his book (previously referred to), old-style colonialism may have gone but governments in the Global North and its corporations have found new ways to assert dominance via leveraging aid, market access and ‘philanthropic’ interventions to force lower income countries to do what they want.
The World Bank’s ‘Enabling the Business of Agriculture’ and its ongoing commitment to an unjust model of globalisation is an example of this and a recipe for further plunder and the concentration of power and wealth in the hands of the few.
Brazil and Indonesia have subsidised private corporations to effectively destroy the environment through their practices. Canada and the UK are working with the GMO biotech sector to facilitate its needs. And India is facilitating the destruction of its agrarian base according to World Bank directives for the benefit of the likes of Corteva and Cargill.
The TRIPS Agreement, written by Monsanto, and the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, written by Cargill, was key to a new era of corporate imperialism.
It came as little surprise that in 2013 India’s then Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar accused US companies of derailing the nation’s oil seeds production programme.
Powerful corporations continue to regard themselves as the owners of people, the planet and the environment and as having the right – enshrined in laws and agreements they wrote – to exploit and devastate for commercial gain.
Partnership or co-option?
It was noticeable during a debate on food and agriculture at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Glasgow that there was much talk about transforming the food system through partnerships and agreements. Fine-sounding stuff, especially when the role of agroecology and regenerative farming was mentioned.
However, if, for instance, the interests you hope to form partnerships with are coercing countries to eradicate their essential buffer food stocks then bid for such food on the global market with US dollars (as in India) or are lobbying for the enclosure of seeds through patents (as in Africa and elsewhere), then surely this deliberate deepening of dependency should be challenged; otherwise ‘partnership’ really means co-option.
Similarly, the UN Food Systems Summit (UNFSS) that took place during September in New York was little more than an enabler of corporate needs. The UNFSS was founded on a partnership between the UN and the World Economic Forum and was disproportionately influenced by corporate actors.
Those granted a pivotal role at the UNFSS support industrial food systems that promote ultra-processed foods, deforestation, industrial livestock production, intensive pesticide use and commodity crop monocultures, all of which cause soil deterioration, water contamination and irreversible impacts on biodiversity and human health. And this will continue as long as the environmental effects can be ‘offset’ or these practices can be twisted on the basis of them somehow being ‘climate-friendly’.
Critics of the UNFSS offer genuine alternatives to the prevailing food system. In doing so, they also provide genuine solutions to climate-related issues and food injustice based on notions of food sovereignty, localisation and a system of food cultivation deriving from agroecological principles and practices.
Something which people who organised the climate summit in Glasgow would do well to bear in mind.
Current greenwashed policies are being sold by tugging at the emotional heartstrings of the public. This green agenda, with its lexicon of ‘sustainability’, ‘carbon neutrality’, ‘net-zero’ and doom-laden forecasts, is part of a programme that seeks to restructure capitalism, to create new investment markets and instruments and to return the system to viable levels of profitability.
See more here:
Header image: Janata Weekly
Editor’s note: Some go further than saying the ‘green’ policies are meant to ‘restructure’ capitalism, they say the idea is to destroy it completely, and replace it with Socialist dictatorships, and it appears we are seeing that starting to happen now with the draconian virus restrictions.
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High-ranking French Vaccination Pope: “Vaccinated people should be quarantined and isolated from society.”

The UK Column channel recently had the opportunity to interview leading French vaccine expert Professor Christian…
The post High-ranking French Vaccination Pope: “Vaccinated people should be quarantined and isolated from society.” appeared first on GreatReject.

Covid vaccines damage the immune system and cause illness and death

Published on November 16, 2021Written by Doug Brodie

A letter to Mr Drew Hendry, MP for Inverness and Nairn, regarding the safety concerns about the Covid vaccines.

Dear Mr Hendry, 
I trust you are feeling contrite after your recent Gibraltar jolly.  
This is to remind you of the email I sent to you and a body of other MPs a week ago on the subject of Covid and vaccines. I don’t expect replies from the other MPs but I believe that on this important subject I am entitled to a response from you as my own MP. 
My already-stated assertions are based on my compilation of evidence entitled “Covid vaccines damage the immune system and cause illness and death”. If you haven’t read through this compilation I urge you to do so, for the sake of your constituents. (My previous email and the edited first half of my compilation is posted online here.)
The purpose of this follow-up email is to repeat my compilation of evidence showing astonishing Covid malfeasance on a global scale, evidence which is so censored from public view and so contrary to the officially-propagated Covid narrative that many people are sadly reluctant to take it on board; and also to put some very specific and important questions to you. 
You may try to dismiss me as a crackpot but here is a Scottish professor agreeing with me, as highlighted in item 13 of my compilation, that the current abnormally high level of Scottish excess deaths is extremely damning for the Covid vaccines. He notes “In Scotland this summer there has been excess mortality for the past 21 weeks with the total excess now exceeding 3,000 deaths”.
He tip-toes around making an unequivocal condemnation of the vaccines, possibly for fear of being “cancelled” or censored or perhaps because of the public heath collateral damage uncertainties caused by the protracted lockdowns.  
Nevertheless, his excellent evidence showing deaths sequencing through younger and younger age groups as the vaccine rollout progressed is surely incontrovertible.
The sequence is shown dramatically the other way round in this statistical animation, with the mostly old and infirm susceptibles dying in large numbers at the start of vaccine rollout (oldest first) in different countries and at different times all around the world. In the UK, that January/February 2021 vaccine-induced spike in deaths was actually worse than the March/April 2020 Covid “first wave”.
The authorities shamelessly duped everyone by passing off that January/February 2021 spike as their long-lost Covid “second wave” (see items 10 and 11 of my compilation). They then shamelessly made out that the Gompertz-curve fall in deaths in the 2021 vaccine-induced wave, which was closely similar in profile to the 2020 first wave with no vaccines, was all thanks to their “world-beating” vaccines.
Then from June 2021 Covid-attributed deaths started rising again, whereas throughout summer 2020 they were practically non-existent, with no vaccines. 
The sheer effrontery of the establishment’s deception is staggering. Sadly, a great many people have been frightened and unknowingly manipulated into believing that the establishment’s Covid narrative is the gospel truth. 
If you want a more explicit condemnation of the vaccines, here is a US archbishop, no less denouncing the toxic Covid experimental vaccines and the disgraceful withholding of alternative cheap, effective and safe treatments, citing exactly the same evidence and dystopian “Great Reset” motivations as I cited in my email. 
To add a personal slant, two close family members and a friend have suffered from against-the-odds coincidental strokes since the Covid vaccine rollout started. Correlation is not proof of causation but blood clots are the number one expected adverse reaction from the Covid vaccines. My previously active first close relative spent months in hospital with hardly any improvement and is now invalided at home being looked after by carers.
My previously very active second close relative is so enfeebled as to be unable to even leave home since suffering a sudden auto-immune system disability about ten weeks ago. The third case was thankfully relatively mild, a suddenly useless arm. 
To pose my specific questions:  
Do you agree that it is little short of criminal (for context, see the crucial “conspiracy theory” final item in my compilation) that UK doctors are banned from providing early treatment to Covid sufferers using cheap, effective and safe drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin?
The deliberately-restrictive UK policy of primary reliance on hospital treatment such as ICU ventilators, otherwise holding out for mass vaccinations, must have caused thousands of unnecessary deaths and nosocomial infections, whereas home treatments using these simple drugs have been a huge success in saving thousands of lives in apolitical India and elsewhere.
Do you agree with the evidence staring us all in the face (see above and my compilation item 1) that on balance the Covid vaccines are very possibly worse than useless? And if you claim that they reduce the risk of severe illness and death, please note the refutation of that reportedly weakly-evidenced assertion in this testimony by Dr Peter Doshi, editor of the BMJ (and item 1 of my compilation). 
It is known that vaccinated people can be infected and carry viral loads similar to those of unvaccinated people. Do you therefore agree that vaccine passports (currently for 2 jabs, coming now booster 1, then booster 2 … ad infinitum) for Covid vaccines which do not prevent infection or transmission are medically pointless, medically unethical (as governed by the Nuremberg Code), unfairly discriminatory, and have no proven benefits?
On what balance of justification is Nicola Sturgeon planning to make them mandatory for pubs, restaurants and leisure venues in Scotland? 
Regarding people who have had Covid and recovered, do you agree that it is little short of criminal to coerce such people into taking the dangerous Covid vaccines with their hugely underreported severe adverse reactions when they are at negligible risk of re-infection thanks to their much superior, probably life-long naturally-acquired immunity, like this NHS nurse facing the sack?
Irrespective of Covid infection history, for any recipient the risk of vaccine injury gets worse with each successive jab.  
Health Secretary Sajid Javid and his disgraced predecessor Matt Hancock are both established disciples of the World Economic Forum which is pushing its undemocratic, surreptitious-in-plain-sight Great Reset initiative which requires the entire population to be “digitally chipped”. 60,000 essential care home workers have been forced out of their jobs for not taking the dangerous vaccine.
Sajid Javid’s plan to dismiss 120,000 much-needed healthcare workers for the same reason (but it’s somehow OK for them to continue until April) is proof, if more were needed, that this is not about fighting a virus. How long will it be before the cruelly coercive “no jab, no job” rule becomes widespread in this country, as it is in many suddenly fascist countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, France and Italy? The common factor is that all these countries are led by globalist Davos/WEF stalwarts. 
These politicians obviously know that the Covid vaccines have turned out to be disastrous relative to what they were hoping for. Could it be that their desperate coercions to get their entire populations to take these dangerous and ineffective vaccines, including children and young adults at negligible risk from Covid, are benignly motivated because they honestly believe that is the only way to “save Granny”?
I assert that is utterly implausible, which leads to the following key question:
Do you deny that you and the entire political class have needlessly dragged out the Covid scare since summer 2020 when UK Covid deaths all but disappeared in order to administer the unnecessary and, as was forewarned and quickly demonstrated, dangerous Covid vaccines to the entire population, all for the appalling yet patently obvious ulterior motive of getting everyone hooked on vaccine passports which will morph into social credit digital IDs ready for the Davos/WEF/UN “Great Reset”? 
You need to start backing down instead of doubling down on your political machinations as your increasingly obvious ulterior agendas are coming to be seen by the general public as pointless, unachievable and toxic. It is indisputable that the Covid vaccines are dangerous and ineffective. Too many people are being needlessly injured and killed, including abnormally high numbers of healthy athletes and airline pilots.
The booster rollout could be causing a repeat spike in deaths in the new cohort of elderly susceptibles: the 20 Oct uptick in the graph in my compilation item 11 has since gone up ~25%. You need to heed the many independent experts such as HART Group who say that mass vaccinations must be stopped. If you also stopped your unfit-for-purpose mass testing and reverted to honest pre-Covid death certification, your carefully stage-managed Covid “pandemic” would almost certainly start to fade away overnight. 
The COP26 summit has been the same ritual pantomime as all previous COPs, with jet-setting billionaires, politicians (bar China and Russia who are laughing at us) and the 85-car convoy US president telling us little people how we need to turn our lives upside down and submit to becoming poorer, colder and hungrier, all on the scientifically-flimsy, strongly-contested yet undebated claim that this is all essential to “save the planet”.
The hysterical rhetoric of these people proves they are all suffering from very dangerous climate derangement syndrome. It’s the hysteria about climate change that poses the greatest threat to humanity. 
The unintended outcome of COP26 has been to further alienate the general public from the entire political class and mainstream media.
Unexpectedly, I agree with brainwashed Greta Thunberg as far as where they can shove their unevidenced “climate crisis”.
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They just admitted what the passport system is for

Published on November 16, 2021Written by Tom Woods

You’ve probably seen a handful of people on social media say that vaccine passport systems make them “feel safe.” You know and I know that these systems have nothing to do with health or safety.
Well, some authorities in Canada just admitted what you and I knew: the aim is to punish the unvaccinated.
The British Columbia Parks and Recreation department says: “Remember, the purpose of the PoV card is to incentivize residents to be vaccinated, not to control the spread of the virus.”
Then further: “This is an important shift to keep aware of for your decision-making; the province has shifted from actions that provide a COVID-safe environment to actions that provide discretionary services to the vaccinated.”
Patricia Daly, Chief Medical Health Officer for Vancouver Coastal Health, added:
“The vaccine passport requires people to be vaccinated to do certain discretionary activities such as go to restaurants, movies, gyms, not because these places are high risk. We are not actually seeing covid transmission in these settings.
It really is to create an incentive to improve our vaccination coverage…. The vaccine passport is for non-essential opportunities, and it’s really to create an incentive to get higher vaccination rates.”
So even though cities and countries with these systems in place are doing no better than countries that don’t, that isn’t the point.
The point, as I’ve said all along, is to punish those who decline the vaccines.
Bold emphasis added
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Is There Enough Light on Mars to power solar cells?

Published on November 16, 2021Written by

Astronauts traveling to Mars will need to grow some of their own food in order to survive and stay healthy. To successfully grow plants on Mars, greenhouse structures will be necessary to provide similar growing conditions to those on Earth.

Greenhouses on Earth are structures with transparent glass or plastic walls and roofs that allow as much of the available sunlight as possible to reach the plants inside. But on Mars will there be enough light to meet the needs of growing plants? Several factors influence the amount of light that would be available on Mars for growing plants.
Distance from the Sun
Mars’ greater distance from the Sun means that the maximum intensity (brightness) of sunlight on Mars is much less (about 44 percent) than that on Earth. This means that the greatest light intensity that Mars ever experiences is about the same as the light intensity Canada experiences in the middle of the winter, when the northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun (See Figure 1).

Figure 1: Mars-Earth Sun intensity comparison. The maximum solar insolation on Mars is only about 590 W/m2 compared to about 1370 W/m2 at the Earth’s surface.
Martian Seasons
The seasons a planet experiences are determined by the tilt of the planet on its axis and the shape of its orbit around the Sun. Like Earth, Mars is tilted away from the Sun on its axis, so as it travels around the Sun there are times during the Martian year (days) that a part of the planet does not receive direct sunlight. This axial tilt causes four seasons on Mars, which is similar to Earth. Since Mars is twice as far from the Sun, each year on Mars is longer (1.88 Earth years), and the seasons are each twice as long as on Earth.
In addition, the shape of Mars’ orbit, which is very elliptical (an eccentric orbit) compared to Earth’s orbit, results in seasons that are of different lengths. For example, in the northern hemisphere on Mars, spring is 7 months, summer is 6 months, fall is 5.3 months and winter is a little over 4 months long. This means that the number of daylight hours and light intensity at different times of the year may not always be enough to meet the needs of plants.
The Impact of Weather
The amount of light reaching the surface of Mars can also be dramatically affected by weather. Due to its distance from the Sun and thin atmosphere, the surface of Mars is very cold, about six degrees Celsius. The most significant weather phenomena on Mars are dust storms and winds.
These dust storms can block out direct solar radiation from the Sun for very long periods of time, sometimes for up to several weeks or even months! (See The Weather of Mars video) Without enough light for that length of time, plants would not be able to produce enough food through photosynthesis and they would slowly die.
It appears that, depending on the location of habitation on Mars, the time of year and the weather conditions, artificial light sources will be needed to provide a reliable and adequate amount of light to grow plants on Mars. At the same time, scientists are also conducting research with plants to find ways to lower their requirements for light.
Mars Plant Research On Earth
Will there be enough natural sunlight on Mars to grow crops such as tomatoes? Will greenhouses with artificial light be required? Plant scientists have been working on finding answers to these key questions through studies conducted right here on Earth.
Devon Island in Nunavut, Canada, is the largest uninhabited island on Earth. It has surface characteristics that strongly resemble those of the surface of Mars, with a barren, rocky landscape and temperatures that often dip as low as –50°C and rarely go higher than 5°C (See Figure 2).

Figure 2: Map of Devon Island showing location of the Haughton Impact Crater.
Located at latitude of slightly more than 75°N, Devon Island has a solar insolation similar to the solar insolation at the Martian equator. Scientists are assuming that the location of the first Mars habitation by humans will occur near the Martian equator where seasonal changes that can affect light intensity are less noticeable. Except for a brief period in June, the intensity of the Sun on Devon Island never gets higher than the solar intensity on Mars.
This means Devon Island provides an excellent environment to do plant research with light conditions that resemble those on Mars. In 2002, the Arthur C. Clarke Mars Analogue Greenhouse was installed near the rim of the Haughton Impact Crater, on Devon Island near the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS). Researchers here are learning how to operate a greenhouse in this very extreme climate.
Plant scientists have been conducting experiments and testing sensor technologies (webcams and environment monitoring sensors) that can monitor the growing conditions inside the greenhouse and the condition of the plants (See Figure 5). Several crops, including radishes, beets, lettuce, and tomatoes have been grown in this greenhouse on Devon Island.

Figure 5: University of Guelph researcher Thomas Graham sets up the fall season autonomous growth trial experiment in 2008. Several cameras, as well as environmental monitoring sensors (light, temperature, humidity, etc.) are used to monitor and control the greenhouse after the research team leaves the field camp, returning 11 months later.
Source: Dr. Thomas Graham, University of Guelph
Devon Island research is also helping scientists to learn about how to keep a greenhouse operating and providing for the needs of the plants without actually having humans there to care for the plants.
For 11 months of the year the growing environment is maintained with remotely-controlled (satellite) and automated irrigation systems, solar panels, heating systems to support growth, and a webcam network to track the progress of the plants (See Figure 6). These automated gardening techniques could come in handy in preparing for the arrival of humans (to have food and air ready for crew when they arrive) on Mars, or for keeping plants growing between missions.
The success of this greenhouse in the extreme environment of Devon Island is a good indication of whether or not people will be able to grow crops on Mars.

Figure 6: Satellite telemetry of an autonomous, multi-crop growth trial (2006) at the Arthur C. Clarke Mars Greenhouse. Plants shown had been growing without direct human contact for two weeks, and continued to grow independently for another 8 weeks. The greenhouse was then put into ‘hibernation mode’ until favourable conditions returned after the long Arctic winter.
Source: Canadian Space Agency

The Great Red North: Nunavut’s ‘Martian colony’ has become go-to spot to field-test extra-planetary tech (Retrieved April 21, 2016). This article, from National Post, discusses the research that is being done on Devon Island in the hopes of mimicking conditions on Mars.
Arctic greenhouse may lead to farms on Mars (Retrieved July 25, 2016).This article from CBC features Canadian research efforts at growing crops remotely in the Arthur C. Clarke greenhouse on Devon Island, Nunavut.
Green plants, red planet (Retrieved May 2, 2016). This article from Greenhouse Canada discusses greenhouse research that is being conducted on Devon Island, Nunavut, to support the future exploration of Mars.
Solar Radiation in Space (Retrieved April 21, 2016). This website, from Photovoltaic Education Network, describes how to calculate solar radiation for different planets.
Does Mars Have Seasons? (Retrieved February 27, 2017). This webpage from Universe Today explains the causes of the seasons on Mars.

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Header image: Dr. Thomas Graham, University of Guelph
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